C20 (as they are colloquially known ) are a dedicated pressure or interest group devoted to the protection of ...well obviously 20th century buildings! ...They've certainly got their work cut out for them here in sunny Sheffield with a plethora of structures to observe, research and possibly protect -I've made a few friendships with several members over the past couple of years and was both delighted and honored to be asked to lead both a short walking tour of the City Centre and also a coach tour round the outer estates and suburbs. Obviously a far amount of research and planning had to go into such a project - I've enclosed my notes for the second half off the city centre walking tour - the first half consisted of the usual suspects - Peace gardens ,City Hall and Cathedral which as much as I like and appreciate - are not really my specialism; this section of the tour starts off from Castle Square
(think Owen Hatherley without the academia !)
There’s tons of this sort of stuff going on these days and everyone seems to be at it – Urban exploring, industrial archaeology, urbanwandering, psychogeography, industrial history, modernist revival,TowerBlocktrainspotting!.
Fact is...I’ve done it for yonks, have always done it and always will continue to do it….. Not that I’m professing to be an authority on it by any stretch of the imagination; It’s always something I’ve found a very natural thing to do …It’s not a new idea and was first mooted by the Situationists in Europe during WW2 (interestingly enough they influenced a lot of the early punk stuff so hey …no surprises why I’m attracted to it!)
Anyhow I digress …The Situationists talked about a concept of Derive
a dérive is an unplanned journey through a landscape, usually urban, where an individual travels where the subtle aesthetic contours of the surrounding architecture and geography subconsciously direct them with the ultimate goal of encountering an entirely new and authentic experience. The term is literally translated into English as drift.The dérive, an unplanned tour through an urban landscape directed entirely by the feelings evoked in the individual by their surroundings, served as the primary means for mapping and investigating the psychogeography of these different areas. The need for the dérive is necessitated, according to situationist theory, by the increasingly predictable and monotonous experience of everyday life trudged through every day by workers in advancedcapitalism. The dérive grants a rare instance of pure chance, an opportunity for an utterly new and authentic experience of the different atmospheres and feelings generated by the urban landscape.
If that’s not high brow enough for you… here’s an even poncier version
In its most basic and crudest terms I interpret the derive as
“roaming somewhat aimlessly around the Urban Landscape just taking things in”
Or in my case cruising around Sheffield CityCentre
– I identify most with that definition without the need for an over academic analysis although I do have to admit it great to read what you’ve passionately done for ages validated in print – Also more recently I’ve been prompted to try and learn more about the urban environment that I’m familiar with; How its been shaped,planned and designed; What works and what doesn’t work about it, What influences how it is
Back to task...my latest offering has been somewhat inspired by this guy-
Owen Hatherley - author of Militant Modernism and a Guide to the new ruins of Great Britain – he also writes a number of wellreceived blogs...and he LOVES Sheffield – he’s a man after my own heart…
“Sheffield’s post war architecture is often better than London’s, let alone that of any provincialcompetitor”
The New Ruins of Great Britain
I’m somewhatimpressed with Owens research, passion and attention to detail - he argues points brilliantly but to be quite frank …there’s too many big words for me. Pass the dictionary please. Here’s his last outage in Steel city
And this is where TowerBlockMetal picks up in a 12in remix(Battle Metal Styley)
My intention initially was to really scratch away further at some of the points that Owen touches on but I’ve ended up following my own perspective and direction Writing isn’t my strong point; I only just scraped thru a diploma many years ago so readers will have to grin and bear it.
Throughout this journey I’ve been pleasantly surprised by the amount of social history in such a small area and finally the vast amount of Public Art that’s around that I’ve never acknowledged - (If its that’s good why haven’t you noticed it before eh I hear you saying)
It’s a bit of a mix of a Psychotic cut n paste plagiarized homage to the joys of Wikipedia,various architectural reference books of mine and many a trawl through some of the online Sheffield forums- a real "mash up" of an Architectural/ Social history/Public Art /Industrial tour - I don’t profess to be a master at any of those areas but an interested researcher definitely
The Old Town!
I’ve always called this bit of Sheffield “The Old Town”because it reminds me of my home town – Rochdale,and of my upbringing in the 70s. It’s the bit of Sheffield where it feels like there’s an imaginary Glass Berlinwallor some sort of demarcation zone dividing the post war East of Sheffield (read poorer people) from the free thinking more socially mobile West of Sheffield ..That’s just my theory anyhow but there’s a definite shift in character and class the minute you cross those tramlines at the Cathedral end of Fargate -the whole ambience of this part is the hangover of a heady 1960s town plannersparty – that said and done I DO like the place and feel very much at home there.
World War II wreaked significant destruction of much of the ‘High Street and Castle’ character area and the vast majority of buildings in this area post-date 1945. Bomb damage included the destruction of every building in Angel Street and King Street and much of High Street,including the Marples Hotel where 70 civilians were killed whilst sheltering in its cellars on the night of December 12th 1940.
The area was rebuilt in Modernist style and architecturally is similar to the ‘Civic Circle’character area.
Castle Square/ Hole in t road
Castle Square was originally known as the Market Place (or the Shambles)
Markets had been held on this site from 1296 As stated earlier many buildings in the vicinity of the Market Place were damaged or destroyed on the night of 12 December 1940 when German aircraft bombed Sheffield. The bomb sites were cleared but most remained empty for many years. In 1968 many old streets were cleared to make way for the new Arundel Gate, a dual carriageway road part of the “Civic Circle” that terminated at a large roundaboutbuilt on the former market place. Underneath the roundabout a network of underpasses and shops were built (with a central area open to the sky), this formed a complex that was officially designated Castle Square but became affectionately known locally as "Hole in t' Road" or the Hole in the Road.
Although considered by many to be a major city landmark,like many constructions of its time, it did not age well and was very dilapidated by the early 1990s. It lasted from 1967 until 1994, allegedly being filled in with the rubble from the recently demolished Hyde Park Flats
There's a very informative piece about the hole in the road here including some great info on the infamous fish tank
Another piece about the filling of the Hole in the road here
There's a few bits of public art now dotted around the Supertram interchange; firstly as Arundel Gate terminates at Castle square you may notice the 4 Griffins And lets not forget those Fighting Rams : A gritstone sculpture byJonathon Cox: "Carved in two blocks of stone, the animals charge againsteach other expressing strength and movement." The rough finish of the work adds to the ruggedness
Like many of Sheffield landmarks that are sadly no longer but never forgotten - here it still always pleases me to see Pete McKee's tribute to the yet again "infamous fishtank"
As we leave Castle square perusing about how much Public Art one can take in whilst simultaneously wading through the Greggs wrappers, betting slips and SuperBrew cans - attention is ultimately drawn to a huge God of Metal adorning the side of Castle House - there can be no mistake about this my friends.
You are in Sheffield and this can only be...
It is with great sadness that I have to inform you Vulcan is made of Fibre Glass ..not Metal
CastleHouse in Angel Street is a wonderful example of sixties architecture; christened ‘the building of the future’ by a local paper, it was opened on the 13th May 1964. The building is Grade 2 listed
.The Castle House department store was designed by G. S Hay of the Co-operative Wholesale Society and occupies a large site, with entrances on King Street, Angel Street and Castle Street. The store, which also housed the headquarters of the Brightside and Carbrook, features a massive unsplayed granite facade unbroken by windows.
Thestairwells of the Castle Street (north) entrance and the Angel Street (west) entrance retain their exciting full-height geometric abstract Carter’s tile murals, although the black and white relief-tiled lift surrounds by LucienMyers have been replaced.
At ground level in the Angel Street corner is a post office, whose entrance is now host to a First World Warmemorial to Sheffield’s postal workers. The panel, showing a roll of honour between two classical columns, was moved from a nearby post office due to its closure in 1999. It was made by a local firm,Robertson & Russell, from an apparently ceramic material called morsatile;its opus sectile-like sheen and curving, cut forms suggest it contains some glass. The firm produced several other morsatile war memorials for localchurches during 1920-1, including the example still extant at Wadsley Parish Church,Worrall Road,to the west of the city centre, where Jeremiah Robertson of Robertson &Russell was a parishioner
In the 1980s, the Brightside and Carbrook Co-op merged with the Sheffield and Ecclesall Co-operative to form the Sheffield Co-operative Society.By 2006, the Society had 35 grocery shops, six travel stores, four petrol stations, seven funeral parlours and three department stores. However, the group faced competition within Sheffield from both the United Co-operatives and the Co-operative Group.In 2007, the Society voted to merge with the United Co-operatives, which itself merged with the Co-operative Group shortly afterwards. All three of the former Society's department stores, including Castle House, were closed in 2008.
Opposite the Co-op’s Castle Street entrance, a drab gable end has been transformed by a 1986 brick mural, the Steelworker by the artist Paul Waplington. It was constructed by Sheffield’sCity Works Department using eighteen different types of brick from eight manufacturers, the total number of bricks being about 30,000.
Sheffield City Council Arts Departmentand Department of Land and Planning (Planning Division).
the history of the steel industry is central to the city of Sheffield and its surrounding area.In recent years the industry (as mining in Derbyshire)has been in steady decline and this image is representative of the past Industrial boom and those who took a part in it. The portrait of the Steelworker is not a total invention, but based upon that of an actual individual and then adjusted to fit the medium. The artist Paul Waplington commented: (1984) "The eyes had to be enlarged, for example, or the pupils and the whites would have been smaller than a brick."
Thestrong image has been featured in publications to promote the use of brick,e.g. Brickwork Design Magazine No.3., Vol.3, Jan. 1988; Guide to SuccessfulBrickwork, Edward Arnold, 1993. The piece uses, after all, 30,000 bricks of 18 different types and 5 types of mortar. 'Steelworker' is considered by some to be one of the first modern public art works in the city, which has now expanded culturally embracing the arts within its changing cultural context
Yes there was a castle here once - it was raised to the ground approx 1650 there are ruins still underneath the market.
An excavation led by Leslie Armstrong in 1927,prior to the construction of the Brightside and Carbrook Co-operative Societystore, uncovered the base of one of the gateway bastion towers, as well as partof the gateway itself. These remains of the castle are preserved under thecity's Castle Market they are Grade II listed and are open for viewing. Thevisible remains are situated in two rooms below Castle Market One room is opento the public, pending booking of a tour, the other room is walled and the onlyaccess is via a manhole in the market's food court. Due to the precariousaccess down a narrow tunnel, tours are no longer conducted in the main roomthough the second room is accessible. The remaining ruins, approximately 32feet above the River Don, are those of one of the gate towers, they represent aquarter of the Eastern tower More recent excavations in 1999 and 2001 ARCUS, Sheffield University's archaeologicalresearch and consultancy unit, revealed the castle to have been much largerthan previously was thought: among the largest medieval castles in England Drilling was done in the upper food court delivery yard and flag stones left in situ to mark boundaries of the castle-Wikipedia
Fuller history and Map of Sheffield Castle here
Enough of the Middle Ages -Back to Castle Market! the oldest part of the building is the Fish and Vegetable Market, constructed in the inter-war period. The remainder of the building was constructed by J. L.Womersley and AndrewDarbyshire between 1960 and 1965. A labyrinthine structure built inthe 1960s and characteristic of its era. It has two main floors, both includingsmall shops and stalls, and each accessible from street level. Other stores face on to the surrounding streets, while a gallery found a storey above the main part of the market contains several more shops, and access to an officebuilding surmounting the structure. The gallery is linked by bridges across Exchange Street tofurther above-ground shopping areas. Unfortunately most of these walkways are now closed off
Needless to say oneof the design features of the 1960s scheme and indeed a common feature of muchpost war planning was the concept of separating the pedestrian from the trafficbelow via galleries and walkways this seems to have proven largely unsuccessfulby the general density and volume of human traffic in the area. Still CastleMarket remains an exemplary statement of post war optimism and cool.
Castle Market is a good old fashioned post-war Municipal market- cheap,cheerful and fiercely proud. Hellfire did I say “Old Fashioned” there - nowmaybe you’ll understand what I mean when I refer to “The Old Town” I believe it’s a part of a post-war history and social environment thatmoulded and shaped us into the people we are now… and its rapidly disappearingbefore our eyes! I don’t feel I need toget into some sort of socially observational academic exercise about CastleMarket. There’s enough written about it and plenty of photos via the links below - you really need to get there yourself, honestly it won’t kill you andyou’ll probably kick yourself not goingenough or going at all when its gone
In his summing up of the feel of this place Owen Hatherley quintessentially acknowledges the atmosphere of Castle Market and what I and many others truly believe marks Sheffield different and much more socially minded than the other major Northern cities
Unfortunately this place, and those people, are what make Sheffield different from Leeds, or Manchester, or Birmingham - it has a city centre which can still accommodatethose who are elderly, or poor, or (from the looks of it, often) ill. It's aunique survival, architecturally and socially, which needs decent upkeep andlittle else - it's well-used, even on this miserable Monday morning.
The Market has always held a strong place in many Sheffielders hearts here's some sketches
Despite a last minute campaign in 2010 by English Heritage;Castle Market didn’t get listed- apparently the request for consideration of listing was anonymous
Paradoxically the council in its wisdom were going to massively regenerate the area several years
The original scheme to replace the markets fell victim to the 1990s recession. A new markets building is due to start construciont as part of The Moor(Sheffield) scheme, which is part partnership between the council and private developers. The multi-storey carpark for the scheme has already been built on Eyre Street.
Part of the council's current plans is to demolish the existing complex and open up a pedestrian route from the citycentre to the Victoria Docks area and the new Riverside Quarter, now that the ring road has been diverted. So folks at some time in the near future Castle Market and buildings will be demolished; an open space will be created displaying the Castle ruins and also attempting tolink the long forgotten Victoria Quays to the City Centre. Despite having a presence in that part of Sheffield for a documented 700 years; Market traders will be moved to the Moor
When I saw it last year, I was shocked at how such a grand old building had been allowed to fall into such a run downstate. Surely, this is a building worth saving? Has any interest been shown inrestoring it? When I saw how much attention was being given to the Park HillFlats and I saw how the GPO in Fitzalan Sq and the old court house had been neglected, I really had to give my head a shake. :loopy
This is nothing unusual for that end of town the council have deliberately run the area down so as there will be no opposition to the demolition of CastleMarket. They can then carry out there stupid plan to build a market at the verybottom of The Moor, leaving the traditional Market area to be turned into some kind of grassed area with an old bit of Castle Wall at the bottom end they thenthink that the tourists will come flocking in ,you couldn’t make it up
Less well-offcitizens are not less deserving of a market that is easy to access
The current market building is unpleasant to use; this is not a reflection on the traders, but on a building that has not stood the test of time. If the location of the new market building is really such an insurmountable issue, why has nobody suggested adapting the old Co-op building (Castle House) for the markets?The merits of the building are in the eye of the beholder , I myself have on many occasions stated that if the Market must move then why not use CastleHouse [The Co Op] saving millions and millions of pounds on this ludiques move to the Moor. The historian's among us argue that the Markets must be moved so as to expose any possible ?remains of the old Castle and in so doing completly ignore the much older historical trading centre of Sheffield. Local people -Sheffield Blog
Finally when Castle Market is dead and buried we can always thank the fantastically talented Jonathan Wilkinson of “WeLiveHere” for immortalising the municipal marketplace forevermore
Unfortunately this is now SOLD OUT – you should’ve been quicker!
It is somewhat ironic that as the intelligentsia of the leftfield argue and debate about whether or not romanticised 1960s post-warbuildings should be preserved Right across the road from Castle Market on the junction of Waingate and Castle Street is the (disused) and Grade 2 listed Old Courthouse; which until 1890 was the Old Town Hall ; SomeSheffielders may well consider this the“Old” Old Town Hall as The Town hall on Pinstone St is commonly referred to as the Old town hall with the demolished “EggBox”from the 1970s being the “New” Town Hall! (Does that make any sense folks?)
The building was commissioned to replace Sheffield's first town hall, which had opened in 1700 to a design by William Renny.The Old Town Hall was built in 1807–8 by Charles Watson, and was designed to house not only the TownTrustees but also the Petty and Quarter Sessions. The initialbuilding was a five-bay structure fronting Castle Street, but it was extendedin 1833 and again in 1866 by William Flockton (1804-1864) of Sheffield and his partner for the project, Abbott; the most prominent feature was the new centralclock tower over a new main entrancethat reoriented the building to Waingate. At the same time, the building's courtrooms were linked by undergroundpassages to the neighboring Sheffield PoliceOffices The first Town Council was elected in 1843and took over the lease of the Town Trustees' hall in 1866. The following year,the building was extensively renovated, with a clock tower designed by Flockton& Abbott being added.By the 1890s, the building had again becometoo small, and the current SheffieldTown Hall was built furthersouth. The Old Town Hall was again extended in 1896-7, by the renamed Flockton,Gibbs & Flockton, and became Sheffield Crown Courtand Sheffield High Court. In the 1990s, thesecourts moved to new premises, and since at least 1997 to present, the buildingremains disused.In 2007, it was named by the Victorian Society as one of their top ten buildings most at risk
Some Brilliant Urban exploration pics below check ‘em out
Down Dixon Lane turning right at the Norfolk Arms onto Shude Hill. The gates of the unassuming Ibis hotel contain one of those innocuous bits of Art you’d normally miss out on - “SilverService” By Mike Johnson - a homage to Sheffield heritage and association with the cutlery industry Cutlery has been stamped at regular intervals into the stainless steel tubing with which the gate is constructed. The cutlery was then removed leaving an imprint in thesteel and often an intriguing bulge in the reverse side of the tubing. "As the title and dedication (to thispiece) suggest, I like the link between the two industries; manufacturing andservice, which is made not only through the image, but also with the tactile(nature) and simplicity of design." – artists comment
which leadyou to
This seems to have lost its some of its glory as a major civic square, maybe because a tram passes thru it…maybe because its essentially a taxi rank.. Maybe those trees just need a good trim as it’s a bit dingy in its old age.. I don’t know but it feels its fallen from its former crown … its got history though Castle Square was originally known as the Market Place (or the Shambles), markets were held around this area from 1296. A market cross was erected in Castle Square in 1568 but taken down in 1786 when the market moved into the new Fitzalan Market Hall that was built over part of the market square. A monument to the poet Ebenezer Elliott was erected on the same site in 1854 but was moved to Weston Park in 1875 where it can still be seen. The Fitzalan Market Hall was demolished in 1930 ending nearly 700 years of market trading at this spot. The Fitzalans were major local landowners at that time
Directly facing you if approaching from Haymarket and immediately to your left as you ascend Bakershill steps is the old Post Office
Sheffield's Head PostOffice operated in the square for almost ninety years. Built in 1910 as an addition to the 1897 post office building on Flat Street, it closed in 1999, asthe main post office moving to new premises within the Co-op store on Angel Street. It was Grade II listedin 1973. The building was up for sale for a considerable time before finally been sold for development in early 2006
Great retro pic of the K6 phone boxes from the square at the top of Bakers Hill with Hyde Park Block D in the background
.Its certainly a dilapidated affair presently and somewhat criminal that its been left to get in this way - don’t get me wrong I love my brutal concrete but I do like a bit of classical style
Those Urbexers have been at it again… more great pics here
Although derelict since before the millennium there are some signs of new life for the former GPO
There’s a few more bits to this square - one of my favourites is “Jew lane “...Blink and you’ll miss it, next to Cooplands bakery I reckon its got to be Sheffield’s narroweststreet its certainly got character and history.
It’s a bit mad to think all that went on in there…. anyhow take a 20 second stroll there and back you might not be able to do so for muchlonger (like with Castle MArket !)
King Edward Statue
The early square had a substantial cab stand and clock. However,this was demolished in 1913 to make way for a bronze statue of King Edward VII by Alfred Drury (1857-1944)
A figure in ceremonial dress standing on a stone plinth, decorated with four panels, the front panel having a crest above it. In the front panel a banner held by female figures contains the king's name.
The other panels, also containing figures,depict
'Peacemaker' (women holding olive branches),
Philanthropy' (Children Hospital), and
'Unity' (figures from Africa, Native America etc )
The Marples Building
The building at the corner of the square as it joins HighStreet was first occupied by a hotel in 1870; John Marples became the proprietor in 1886 and named the establishment the London Mart however it was always known locally as “The Marples”
.On the night of Thursday 12 December 1940, 280 German bombers attacked Sheffield in what has become known as the SheffieldBlitz. Their target was the steel works producing armaments in the eastend of the city, however a mistake in navigation caused the city centre to become the main target. Fire bombs caused widespread panic, and many people took shelter in the Marples’ extensive cellars, believing they were safe under the robust seven-storey building. At 11:44 p.m. the Marples building took a direct hit from a bomb which plunged through the building and detonated just above the cellars, killing approximately 70 people and reducing the building to a 15-foot-high (4.6 m) pile of rubble. The next day seven men were dug out of the rubble still alive, as a small section of cellar roof had, amazingly,withstood the impact
The clearance of the site took many weeks. It was estimated that over one thousand tons of rubble had to be removed from the site before it was cleared.In common with many bomb-sites where lives were lost, the ground was coveredwith quicklime - quicklime is used in epidemics, plagues, and disasters todisintegrate bodies in order to help fight the spread of disease. It also helpsto neutralize the smell emanating from any uncovered remains. Thesite lay derelict for nineteen years. This site also seemed to have had profound effect on the people of Sheffield. It was enclosed within a wooden fence and fromtime to time, people would place flowers against the fence or attach them to the fence itself.
A contributor to a local history message forum noted that
"If you were passing with your parents, you would get clip round the ear if you slowed down to look or dawdled. Sometimes there were kids in town on their own and if they were thought to be hanging around the fence, they were told to clear-off and mind their own business, not only by the police but passers-by. When the site was eventually cleared, and before redevelopment, it was briefly a car park. I knew people, my father being one, who would never dream of parking there. Many people looked on it as almost hallowed ground."
The Marples site stood derelict until 1959 when the brewing company John Smith opened a new public house on thesite, (you can still see the John Smiths logo) This time officially called “The Marples”. The pub closed in 2002 apparently it used to be a good Punk venue back in the day
:My husband and I ( sound like the queen)remember the gigs at the Marples, I remember taking extra toys with me for theget in with a toy and giving them to punx waiting to get in who had none.I remember doing my hair in the toilets stood next to Annie from Dirt nthinking she looked so good .That hair of hers must have took some right backcombing. My Husband remembers the fight at the Toy dolls gig :help:.He rememberthe Mau Maus the gig where they were recording a live album
I remember Becky Bondage getting covered in spit ( yuk ):gag: n putting a blanket around her.We also used to go to Rebels down Dixon Lane, every week it said it was thelast night so everyone made sure they had a really good night.Sheffield was a really good place to be apunk. You could go down town and meet up with your mates no need to phone themjust go to the peace gardens or Woolworth cafe (those were the days) .Where have all the good times gone
On the west side ofthe square is the Grade II listed White Building.Built in 1908 by Gibbs and Flockton, who owned it. It is glazed in faience, which basically is a tile intended to resist the soot that blackened many of Sheffield's buildings at the time The faience has ten figures known as TheSheffield Trades in relief carved by Alfred and William Tory .
a Silversmith (with a blowpipe):
a File Cutter(known locally as a ‘nicker pecker’):
a Steel Roller: a Cutler (with parcers onthe background):
a Grinder (using a flat-stick):
a Hand-forger (who flourished before so much machine forging came into use):
a Buffer (i.e. of non-ferrous articles and not a cutlery grinder’s buffer):
and a steel crucible teemer (with sweat rag in his mouth)."
Leaving the Squaretowards the direction of the “Transport Interchange” (Bus station) we’re all guilty of quietly musing to ourselveswhat we’d like to do with Fitzalan Sq if we had a few spare 10 million quid or indeed what this square would be like in Berlin, Paris or London etc etc daydream daydream - however we now get cheekily distracted by asneaky glimpse of the “Epic Development” - the huge white tiled Behemoth of amulti layered entertainment complex perched on the Skyline; More on that in my next episode; right now you need to pull a quick turn next to the glass fronted wedge shaped MeccaBingo and up into the tranquil Urban Oasis that is
“Hey Sid what ya doin’ later”“Don’t know Dude. Maybe grab an espresso or a couple lagers at Esperanto Place!”
Hardly going to happen is it… The cul de Sac that is Esperanto place was born during the 1960s as a result of Arundel Gate bisecting across Norfolk Street cutting it in two, basically its Norfolk Streets longforgotten relative - Sadly these days all a Google search shows of it is that its classed as a taxi rank – However its not all doom and gloom here - there’s a plague on the side of the Bingohall as a tribute to the factory of Joseph Rodgers and sons; one of Sheffield’smost famous cutlers and silversmiths dating back from 1682 - their factory existed on this site from 1780 and its heyday had over 1700 employees. Its address was 6 Norfolk Street
Here's a drawing of the old works
Anyhow for now folks that where that particular tour ends , there's plenty more to come - enjoy your drinks at Esperanto place
Sid Fletcher June 2012